Monday, March 10, 2014

Peter the Great and the Grand Embassy

Peter the Great
(1672 – 1725)
On March 10, 1697, Russian Tsar Peter the Great began his diplomatic mission to Western Europe, referred to as the 'Grand Embassy'. The goal of this mission was to strengthen and broaden Russia's influence in Western Europe and to find allies against the Ottoman Empire. What makes the mission so special is that Peter the Great led the mission himself, but incognito under a wrong name.

At the age of 10, Peter became Tsar with his mother as regent, but after political troubles, it was insisted that Peter and Ivan were proclaimed joint Tsars. Peter was not really concerned about others ruling and making decisions for him at first, as he had more time for shipbuilding, sailing, and "playing" with his toy army. However, after the death of his mother in 1694, Peter became an independent sovereign.

After some years, Peter aimed to modernize Russia with several reforms and was heavily influenced by Western Europe. Even though he faced much opposition in his government, he dreamed of establishing Russia as a maritime power. His modernizations included the establishment of state officials and modern clothing styles for soldiers, who were then also required to shave their beards.

To improve his nation's position on the seas, Peter sought to gain more maritime outlets. His only outlet at the time was the White Sea at Arkhangelsk. The Baltic Sea was at the time controlled by Sweden in the north, while the Black Sea was controlled by the Ottoman Empire in the south. Peter attempted to acquire control of the Black Sea, which meant that he would have to expel the Tatars. Peter waged war against the Crimean Khan and the Ottoman Sultan. After a first unsuccessful attempt to capture the Ottoman fortress of Azov, near the Don River, he organized a large army and launched about thirty ships against the Ottomans in 1696. On 12 September 1698, Peter officially founded the first Russian Navy base, Taganrog.

Knowing that he was not able to capture the Ottoman Empire all by himself, Peter traveled incognito to Europe on an 18-month journey with a large Russian delegation–the so-called "Grand Embassy" in order to seek the aid of the European monarchs. Unfortunately for Peter, the Europeans had other worries at the time. The concerns concentrated more on the successor of the childless Spanish King Charles II than on fighting the Ottoman Empire.

Still, the Grand Embassy continued and Peter learned much about the culture and life in Western Europe. He studied shipbuilding and was given the opportunity to gain practical experience in the largest shipyard in the world, belonging to the Dutch East India Company. In England, Peter met with King William III and traveled to the city of Manchester to learn the techniques of city-building he would later use to great effect at Saint Petersburg. The Embassy next went to Leipzig, Dresden, and Vienna. He spoke with August the Strong and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. Unfortunately for him, the journey had to be cut short due to a rebellion of the Streltsy in 1698.

Influenced by the European culture, Peter aimed to change several traditions. He worked on ending arranged marriages and divorces his own unhappy marriage as well. Also he changed the celebration of the new year from September 1 to January 1 and proclaimed that the Julian Calendar was in effect and the year was 1700 instead of 7207.

At yovisto, you may be interested in a lecture by John Merriman at Yale University, who talks about Peter the Great

References and Further Reading:

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